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MICROTECTONICS - second edition

C. W. Passchier & R.A.J. Trouw



This book, published by Springer Verlag in Heidelberg, based on teaching courses given in our department and deals with all aspects of deformation microstructures in rocks as observed in thin section. The text is mainly meant for undergraduate and graduate students and discusses results of research on microstructures up to 2005. The book can be used as a course manual, or for independent study. Besides treatment of common microstructures, there are chapters on flow and deformation, deformation mechanisms, microstructures that can be used to derive quantitative data from rocks (microgauges) and special techniques such as EBSD, tomography and fluid inclusion studies. Further included is a glossary of terms, and a list of nearly 700 key references up to 1996. We have included 322 line drawings and photographs to illustrate the description and interpretation of common microstructures. In order to reduce costs, all illustrations are in black and white, but a CD has been added with color photos, images, and animations, exercises and questions as well as a copy of the glossary. The CD works for Windows and Macintosh OSX. Microtectonics has proven useful for self study of microstructures and as a manual for short- and one-semester courses. As an outline, we give the list of contents below.

MICROTECTONICS - C. W. Passchier & R.A.J. Trouw. Springer Verlag. 2005. second edition. 366 p. 322 illus. with CD., Hardcover

ISBN: 3-540-64003-7

The price as indicated by the publisher is €59,95.

See also relevant pages at Springer and Amazon





Table of contents

Chapter 1 A Framework of Microtectonic Studies
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Establishing and Interpreting Deformation Phases
1.3 Deformation Phases and Metamorphic Events

Chapter 2 Flow and Deformation
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Terminology
2.3 Description and Reconstruction of Deformation
2.4 Reference Frames
2.5 Homogeneous and Inhomogeneous Flow and Deformation
2.5.1 Introduction
2.5.2 Numerical Description of Homogeneous Flow and Deformation
2.6 Deformation and Strain
2.7 Progressive and Finite Deformation
2.8 Flow and Deformation in Three Dimensions
2.9 Fabric Attractor
2.10 Application to Rocks
2.11 Stress and Deformation
2.12 Rheology

Chapter 3 Deformation Mechanisms
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Brittle fracturing - cataclasis
3.3 Dissolution-Precipitation
3.4 Intracrystalline Deformation
3.5 Twinning and kinking
3.6 Recovery
3.7 Recrystallisation
3.7.1 Grain Boundary Mobility
3.7.2 Bulging (BLG) Recrystallisation
3.7.3 Subgrain Rotation (SGR) Recrystallisation
3.7.4 High-Temperature Grain Boundary Migration (GBM) Recrystallisation
3.8 Solid-State Diffusion Creep, Granular flow and Superplasticity
3.9 Competing Processes During Deformation
3.10 Grain Boundary Area Reduction (GBAR)
3.11 Static Recrystallisation
3.12 Deformation of Some Rock-Forming Minerals
3.12.1 Introduction
3.12.2 Quartz
3.12.3 Calcite and Dolomite
3.12.4 Feldspars
3.12.5 Micas
3.12.6 Olivine
3.12.7 Orthopyroxene
3.12.8 Clinopyroxene
3.12.9 Garnet
3.12.10 Amphiboles
3.13 Deformation of Polymineralic Rocks
3.13.1 Introduction
3.13.2 Quartz-Feldspar Aggregates
3.13.3 Deformed Rhyolites - an Exception
3.14 Flow Laws and Deformation Mechanism Maps

Chapter 4 Foliations, Lineations and Lattice Preferred Orientation
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Foliations
4.2.1 Primary Foliation
4.2.2 Diagenetic Foliation
4.2.3 Secondary Foliations
4.2.4 Morphology of Foliations
4.2.5 Continuous Foliation
4.2.6 Spaced Foliation
4.2.7 Mechanisms of Foliation Development Introduction Mechanical Rotation of Tabular or Elongate Grains Solution Transfer Crystalplastic Deformation Dynamic Recrystallisation and the Orientation of New Grains and Subgrains Static Recrystallisation and Mimetic Growth Oriented Growth in a Differential Stress Field Microfolding
4.2.8 Development of Spaced Foliations Development of spaced foliation without dissolution-precipitation
4.2.9 Geological Context of Foliation Development Foliations and Folds Foliations and the XY Plane of Tectonic Strain Foliations, Strain and Volume Change Foliations, Lithotype and Metamorphic Conditions
4.2.10 Practical Use of Foliations Introduction Overprinting Relations
4.3. Lineations
4.3.1 Terminology of Lineations
4.3.2 Development of Lineations
4.4 Lattice-Preferred Orientation (LPO)
4.4.1 Introduction
4.4.2 Origin of Lattice-Preferred Orientation
4.4.3 Presentation of LPO Data
4.4.4 LPO Patterns of Quartz Introduction The Effects of Strain and Recrystallisation Shear Sense Determination Using Quartz Fabrics
4.4.5 LPO Patterns of Other Minerals

Chapter 5  Shear Zones
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Brittle Fault Rocks
5.2.1 Introduction
5.2.2 Incohesive Fault Rocks
5.2.3 Deformation Bands
5.2.4 Cohesive Fault Rocks
5.2.5 Pseudotachylyte
5.3 Mylonite
5.3.1 Introduction
5.3.2 Characteristic Fabric Elements
5.3.3 Mylonite Classification
5.3.4 Dynamics of Mylonite Development
5.3.5 Mylonite Development at Different Metamorphic Conditions
5.4 Complex Fault Rocks
5.5 Sense of Shear
5.5.1 Introduction
5.5.2 Displacement and Deflection of Markers
5.5.3 Foliation Curvature
5.6 Microscopic Shear Sense Indicators in Mylonite
5.6.1 Introduction
5.6.2 Foliation Orientation
5.6.3 Shear Band Cleavage
5.6.4  Porphyroclast Systems in Mylonites - Introduction
5.6.5 Mantled Porphyroclasts
5.6.6 Mineral Fish
5.6.7 The Development of Porphyroclast Systems  Introduction Development of mantled porphyroclasts Development of Sigmoids Development of Mineral Fish
5.6.8 Porphyroclast Systems as Shear Sense Indicators
5.6.9 Quarter Structures
5.6.10 Lattice-Preferred Orientation
5.6.11 Vergence of Asymmetric Fold Sections
5.6.12 Potential Shear Sense Markers
5.7 Shear Sense Indicators in the Brittle Regime
5.7.1 Introduction
5.7.2 Incohesive Brittle Fault Rocks
5.7.3 Cohesive Brittle Fault Rocks
5.7.4 Pseudotachylyte

Chapter 6 - Dilatation sites
Veins, Strain Shadows, Fringes and Boudins
6.1 Introduction
6.2. Veins
6.2.1 Crystals in veins
6.2.2 The internal structure of veins
6.2.3 Curved Fibres and Fibre Growth Direction
6.2.4 Veins in Non-Coaxial Progressive Deformation
6.2.5  Shear Veins, Slickenfibres and Bedding Veins
6.3 Fringe Structures
6.3.1 Introduction
6.3.2 Fringes on Spherical Core Objects
6.3.3 Fringes on Angular Core Objects
6.4 Fringes and the Deformation Path
6.5 Non-Fibrous Strain Shadows and Strain Caps
6.6 Microboudinage

Chapter 7 Porphyroblasts and Reaction Rims
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Porphyroblast Nucleation and Growth
7.3 Inclusions
7.4 Classification of Porphyroblast-Matrix Relations
7.4.1 Introduction
7.4.2 Pretectonic Porphyroblast Growth
7.4.3 Intertectonic Porphyroblast Growth
7.4.4 Syntectonic Porphyroblast Growth
7.4.5 Post-Tectonic Porphyroblast Growth
7.4.6 Complex Porphyroblast Growth
7.5 Millipede, Deflection-Fold and Oppositely Concave Microfold (OCM) Microstructures
7.6 Problematic Porphyroblast Microstructures
7.6.1 Inclusion-Free Porphyroblasts
7.6.2 Shape and Size of Inclusions compared to Matrix Grains
7.6.3 False Inclusion Patterns
7.6.4 Mimetic Growth
7.6.5 Deformed Porphyroblasts
7.6.6 Uncertain Age Relation of Host and Inclusions
7.6.7 Discontinuous Si and Se
7.6.8 Rotation of Porphyroblasts
7.6.9 Amalgamated Porphyroblasts
7.7 Crystallographically Determined Inclusion Patterns
7.8 Reaction Rims
7.8.1 Introduction
7.8.2 Coronas and Moats
7.8.3 Symplectites
7.8.4 Establishing the Nature of Reactions
7.8.5 Pseudomorphs
7.8.6 Relation with Deformation

8.1 Introduction
8.2 Primary Structures in Rocks of Igneous Origin or in Migmatites
8.2.1 Magmatic and Submagmatic Flow
8.2.2 Evidence for Magmatic Flow
8.2.3 Evidence for Submagmatic Flow
8.2.4 Evidence for Solid State Deformation
8.3 Primary Structures in Sedimentary Rocks
Chapter 9 Natural Microgauges
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Strain Gauges
9.3 Vorticity Gauges
9.3.1 Introduction
9.3.2 Deformed Sets of Veins
9.3.3 Lattice-Preferred Orientation
9.3.4 Mantled Porphyroclasts, Fibrous Veins and Fringes
9.3.5 Porphyroblasts
9.3.6 Tension Gashes and Foliations in Shear Zones
9.3.7 Oblique Foliations
9.3.8 Al-Cr Zoning in Spinel
9.3.9 Wk History and Accuracy
9.4 The Concept of Palaeostress Gauges
9.5 Gauges for the Orientation of Palaeostress Principal Axes
9.5.1 Twins in Calcite and Other Minerals
9.5.2 Fractures and Fluid Inclusion Planes
9.5.3 Deformation Lamellae
9.5.4 Flame Perthite
9.6 Differential Stress Gauges (Palaeopiezometers)
9.6.1 Vein and Fracture Types
9.6.2 Dynamically Recrystallised Grain Size
9.6.3 Twins in Calcite and Dolomite
9.6.4 Twins in Pyroxenes
9.6.5 Microboudins
9.6.6 Deformation Lamellae
9.7 Pressure Gauges
9.8 Strain Rate Gauges
9.9 Temperature Gauges
9.10 Rheology Gauges
9.10.1 Introduction
9.10.2 Folding and Boudinage
9.10.3 Fish and Mantled Objects

Chapter 10 Special Techniques
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Techniques to Study Deformation Fabrics
10.2.1 Cathodoluminescence
10.2.2 Raman Spectroscopy
10.2.3 Electron Microscopy – Introduction
10.2.4 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Introduction Secondary Electron Mode Backscatter Electron Mode Sample Preparation SEM and Optical Microscopy
10.2.5 Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) Introduction Sample Preparation
10.2.6. Tomography
10.3 Methods to Measure Lattice-Preferred Orientation
10.3.1 Introduction
10.3.2 U-Stage Measurements
10.3.3 U-Stage Sample Selection
10.3.4 Optical Semiautomatic Methods
10.3.5 Texture Goniometers
10.3.6 SEM-Techniques  
10.4 Chemical and Isotope Analysis
10.4.1 Electron Microprobe
10.4.2. Proton Microprobe
10.4.3. ERDA and RToF Heavy Ion Microprobes
10.4.4. Mass Spectrometry - Introduction
10.4.5. SIMS, TIMS and SHRIMP
10.4.6. ICPMS and LA-ICPMS
10.4.7 In-Situ Age Determinations
10.5 Fluid Inclusion Studies
10.5.1. Introduction
10.5.2. Non-Destructive Techniques to Study Fluid Inclusions Introduction Thermal Analysis - the Heating-Freezing Stage Ultraviolet Microscopy Infrared Microscopy
10.6 Image Analysis
10.6.1 Introduction
10.6.2 SURFOR and PAROR

Chapter 11. Experimental Modelling Techniques

11.1 Introduction
11.2 Experimental Deformation of Analogue Materials
11.3 Large Scale Analogue Modelling
11.4. Micro-Analogue Modelling
11.4.1 Introduction
11.4.2 Linear Rig
11.4.3. Torsion Rig
11.4.4 Triaxial Rig
11.4.5. Marker Particles
11.4.6 Examples of Analogue Experiments
11.5 Numerical Modelling

11.5.1 Introduction
11.5.2 Finite Element and Finite Difference Modelling
11.5.3 Full Microstructural Modelling

Chapter 12 From Sample to Section

12.1 Introduction
12.2 Sampling
12.3 Orientation of Hand Specimens
12.4 Where to Sample in Outcrop
12.5 Cutting Samples
12.6 Types of Thin Sections
12.7 Geometries in Thin Section - a Problem of Dimensions
12.8 Choosing the Orientation of Thin Sections